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Shord v Commissioner of Taxation

 The case is reasonably unremarkable for any legal or factual analysis, but it does provide a good insight into the attitude of the ATO towards acting as a uncompromising litigant, which makes the most of every possible procedural point, as opposed to a model litigant as they are required.

Justice Logan from Qld made some fantastic comments (with respect);

 

The standard of fair play expected of the Crown and its officers in litigation is a standard in keeping both with the avoidance of behaviours that, in an extreme form, led to the civil war and with the later constitutional settlement. Once this heritage is understood, the requirement for its observance is, or should be, as Griffith CJ stated, “elementary”.

 

I note that Robert Gottleibsen also discussed this case and raised these comments in yesterday’s Australian.

 

Shord v Commissioner of Taxation [2017] FCAFC 167


Between 2006 and 2011, Mr Shord worked on various overseas assignments as a supervisor for foreign companies in the oil and gas industry. He did not lodge tax returns for that period, believing he was a non-resident. The Commissioner believed otherwise and issued amended assessments including all Mr Shord’s foreign income. The Commissioner disallowed Mr Shord’s objection.

The Tribunal found in favour of the Commissioner. The Tribunal found Mr Shord was a resident and, in particular, that his income was not exempt pursuant to s 23AG of the ITAA36. This provision exempts income of residents engaged in foreign services for a continuous period of not less than 91 days.

At the onset of the hearing, counsel for the Commissioner withdrew a contention that Mr Shord’s circumstances failed to meet the legislation’s definition of ‘foreign services’. The Tribunal nonetheless found that Mr Shord did not meet this definition. Fletcher v FCT is authority that a taxpayer is denied procedural fairness when a Tribunal makes a decision on the basis not argued by any party.

Procedural fairness was not raised on appeal to the Federal Court. Instead, the first two questions of law related to the proper application of s 23AG. These hinged on the third question which was whether the Tribunal had jurisdiction to decide whether Mr Shord was engaged in ‘foreign services’. The fourth question was whether Mr Shord was entitled to offsets for foreign taxes paid. The primary judge found against Mr Shord on the third and fourth question and did not therefore consider the first two.

On appeal to the Full Federal Court, procedural fairness was finally raised by Mr Shord as the first ground in an amended notice of appeal. The Commissioner initially objected to the amendment but eventually conceded the ground to Mr Shord. The Full Court thus remitted the matter to the Federal Court to decide the two questions about s 23AG. Unlike the majority, Justice Logan reprimanded the Commissioner, as a representative of the Commonwealth, for its failure to act as a model litigant and raise the crucial issue earlier.

The second ground related to Mr Shord’s entitlement to tax offsets. The Full Court found that Mr Shord did not produce any evidence as to what, when and how much foreign tax he paid, and that neither the Tribunal nor the Commissioner had an obligation to help him adduce evidence to the contrary.
 

Posted in: Tax & ATO News Australia at 01 November 17

Get your affairs in order before you leave Australia

Are you thinking about leaving Australia to take up a new job? Do you realise that you might be taxed in Australia on the income which you earn overseas? Seeking professional advice from a tax lawyer is imperative as they can provide you with the advice which you need to get your affairs in order so that you do not get surprised by an alarming tax bill.

 

If you are an Australian resident, you are taxed on income that you earn overseas. For example, if you accept a job in Dubai, you will be taxed in Australia on the income which you earn there. On the other hand, if you are a non-resident, you are only taxed on income which is sourced in Australia.
 
The residency tests used by the ATO to determine your residency status for tax purposes are not the same as those used by other Australian agencies, such as the Department of Immigration.

The main test that the ATO uses is the “resides test”. Basically, the ATO will look at whether you reside in Australia according to the ordinary meaning of “reside”.

If you do not satisfy this test, then the ATO may also look at any of the following tests:

• Have you been in Australia for more than 183 days in any year? (183 day test);
• Is your domicile in Australia? If it is, have you established a permanent place of abode outside of Australia (Domicile test); and
• Are you a current Commonwealth government employee? (Superannuation test).

The most contentious of these tests is the domicile test. Two recent AAT decisions found in favour of the ATO because although the taxpayers did not reside in Australia, the taxpayers were considered Australian residents for tax purposes because they failed to establish permanent places of abode outside Australia. In both cases, the taxpayers accepted employment overseas - one as a marine engineer in Dubai, the other as an operations technician in southern Oman. As the taxpayers were required to travel as part of their employment, both taxpayers lived in shared accommodation, but only spent a limited amount of time there. On this basis, the AAT held that the taxpayers had failed to establish permanent places of abode outside Australia.  In one case, the AAT described the taxpayer as a “citizen of the world”.

These cases clearly demonstrate that you need to carefully organise your affairs before you leave Australia.
 

Posted in: Tax & ATO News Australia at 05 June 13

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Tax & ATO News Australia

Author: David Hughes

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